How does the body’s endocannabinoid system (ESC) work and affect your health and wellbeing?
Your body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates many aspects of your health and wellbeing. Humans share ECS neurochemicals with most members of the animal kingdom, which developed nearly 600 million years ago. Because of its early evolution, the ECS connected to a variety of different neurological and physiological functions.
Since the 1960s scientists have identified many phytocannabinoids and phytochemicals from cannabis and hemp. Through studying their effects, they discovered a network of biochemical paths, receptors, and enzymes that manufacture and use your body’s natural cannabinoids.
Many people have heard of cannabis’ effects on stress, pain, inflammation, immunity, and mood, among other things; those are exactly the areas where the ECS works to maintain a healthy balance.
The ECS includes cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors), endocannabinoids (eCBs), and enzymes that utilize eCBs. Initial research first suggested endocannabinoid receptors were part of the brain and nervous system. With more research, scientists discovered that the receptors are everywhere in the body.
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are produced naturally throughout your body. Think of them as messengers that use neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. They are the neurochemical delivery mechanism for the central nervous and immune systems.
Two important eCBs are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Like cannabis and hemp’s phytocannabinoids, these neurotransmitters are built from lipids (fat- or oil-based). Because they are lipid-based, they are fat-soluble, and that is the reason most CBD is oil-based.
Anandamide works throughout the ECS, in appetite and memory, just to name a few functions. It’s also been named as the source of the runner’s high that is often experienced during or after exercise. 2-ArachidonoylGlycerol (2-AG) has been linked to seizure protection and cardiovascular health.
Cannabinoid receptors (CBs)
CBs are the gatekeepers of the ECS. They’re found on cell surfaces throughout the body. They wait for the neurochemical messages or neurotransmitters. They bind with specific neurotransmitters. Depending on the cell type, they influence your body’s mood, sensation, immunity, and even consciousness. The 2 primary CBs are CB1 and CB2.
CB1 are among the most common receptors of the central nervous system, and they are necessary for a healthily functioning brain. Depending on where in the brain they are, they moderate mood, memory, and motor function, as well as pain perception.
CB2 receptors are usually found on immune system cells. They help regulate our immune system response to pathogens and also inflammation. They help counteract such conditions as arthritis inflammation, asthma, digestive ailments, and autoimmune diseases.
New research suggests the endocannabinoid system is more complicated than originally thought. Scientists’ discovered that cannabinoids are useful for controlling blood pressure, pain response, inflammation, and gastric function, even without CB1 and CB2 receptors.
That led to the identification of at least 8 other receptors that bind with cannabinoids. At least 3 receptors, GPR18, GPR55, and GPR119, function in the immune system, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal systems. Other newly identified receptors regulate cellular function and pain transmission.
So far, we’ve talked about the messengers (eCBs) and the gatekeepers (CBs,) but what is the actual message?
Your body has molecules (enzymes) that control when and where eCBs are produced. They also control how fast eCBs are isolated or broken down. These molecules are essentially the administrator, directing the eCBs to the right place at the right time. When your body receives a signal to produce eCBs, enzymes begin their work.
Endocannabinoids are created from certain body fats, such as lipids. While several enzymes change these fatty substances into anandamide and 2-AG, 2 enzymes do most of the work. Fatty acid amide hydrolase breaks down anandamide, and monoacylglycerol acid lipase usually deals with 2-AG.
This is why increasing dietary intake of essential fatty acids, such as Omega-#, is important. Fatty acids might help your system to increase eCBs production. They are unique building blocks for eCBs. Once eCBs have completed their work, enzymes break them down.
What are ECS’ functions?
The ECS is complicated, and experts haven’t quite figured out all of its functions and how the ECS works. Researchers have linked the ECS to many bodily functions, such as:
- appetite, digestion, and metabolism
- chronic pain and pain transmission
- stress and resulting inflammation
- immune system response
- learning and memory
- motor control
- sleep quality and duration
- the functioning of the cardiovascular, liver, skin, reproductive, and nerve systems
- muscle formation, bone growth, and remodeling
All of these functions work to achieve balance and stability (homeostasis) of your body’s health and wellbeing. If, for example, you experience pain from an injury or fever from an illness, it throws your body out of kilter. That’s when your ECS begins work to return your body to optimal functioning. Many experts think that that’s the central role of your ECS—maintaining homeostasis.
Some researchers believe in a condition known as clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD). They theorize that low eCBs levels, or CECD, set the stage for the development of certain diseases.
In a 2016 article that reviewed more than 10 years’ research on this subject, the authors suggested CECD could explain conditions such as migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Such conditions don’t have a clear cause and are often resistant to treatment. At times they appear concurrently.
If CECD does undermine health and wellbeing, focusing on the ECS or eCBs production could be the answer to treatment options. However, more research is required before sound conclusions can be drawn.
Effects of CBD on the ECS
Scientists and researchers don’t completely understand how CBD works with the ECS. One thing they do know: CBD doesn’t bind with CB1 and CB2 receptors the same way as THC.
Many believe that the ECS prevents eCBs from breaking down, which has a better effect on your wellness and health. Other researchers think CBD binds to an as-yet-undiscovered receptor.
Even though researchers debate the EC S’s functions and effects on your body, there are clear indications that CBD can help maintain health and wellbeing and address symptoms of pain and nausea. Early evidence suggests that CBD can relieve other symptoms that are tied to multiple conditions.
Lynette Garet is a bilingual freelance writer, SEO practitioner, and web developer. A U.S. ex-pat living in Costa Rica, when not busy with online projects, she can be found hanging with her favorite “stinky boys” (the grand-littles), tending to her garden, cooking, reading, enjoying good wine, and dancing in the kitchen to music from a limitless list of genres.